The following list include links to useful websites

The MIDI class library used by the PHP scripts to generate a MIDI file upon processing of the DNA sequence data.


Web-based application at this Music Algorithms site can provide aural representations of Pi, DNA sequences, or Dow Jones Industrial averages.


Sonification is the use of non-speech audio to convey information or perceptualize data. Due to the specifics of auditory perception, such as temporal and pressure resolution, it forms an interesting alternative to visualization techniques, gaining importance in various disciplines. It has been well established for a long time already as Auditory Display in situations that require a constant awareness of some information.


David Deamer collaborated on a science/art project which consisted of measuring the vibrational frequencies of the four DNA base molecules, translating them into 'sound,' programming them into a Yamaha synthesizer and using this tuning system as the basis for original compositions entitled Sequencia.


DNA Dissociation as a Rhythmic Event In seeking new interpretations of genetics, a number of scientists and musicians have generated musical sequences based on patterns that can be found in DNA. As the field of genomics expands, so have the methods of arriving at musical representations of DNA multiplied.


DNA the Way to San Jose? Brent D. Hugh, a professor of music at Missouri Western State College, and Todd Barton , composer in residence at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival, independently found not only inspiration, but musical raw material in the 3 billion letters that describe our DNA. When genome researchers released their maps of our genetic makeup, they expected researchers to take years to unravel their mysteries and employ them in medicine and other fields.


More music from the genetic sequence of different genes. There are only four "genetic keys", which correspond to four specific chemical structures, the nucleotides adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, also known by their initials ACTG. Life's essential material, el deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is like a musical score where those four keys progressively intertwine. In fact, the mentioned four keys, in order to form units "with a meaning", are represented on the musical score in groups of three different or repeated keys (such as CCG or CAA). Each one of these triplets "means" in chemistry an aminoacid. A gen is like a "musical work" and its expression generates an organized amino acid sequence, playing a specific role in the process of life. Our work has consisted of transforming in musical keys the keys found in the genetic sequence of different genes.


The annotated source list Genetic Music provides information about other DNA and protein-based music.


Great site with many links to related works Also provides an Online Translation of Genetic Sequences to Music. This will translate your input genetic sequence to a music file, in MIDI format, that will be e-mailed to an address.



Written by Mark Temple, School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University